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子女抚养权的确定标准,争取孩子抚养权时如何取证

发布于:2019-01-11 09:17

一、子女抚养权的确定标准
 
I. Standards for Determining the Right of Maintenance of Children
 
 
 
《婚姻法》第36条第2、3款规定:“离婚后,父母对于子女仍有抚养和教育的权利和义务。离婚后,哺乳期内的子女,以随哺乳的母亲抚养为原则。哺乳期后的子女,如双方因抚养问题发生争执不能达成协议时,由人民法院根据子女的权益和双方的具体情况判决。”1993年11月13日,最高人民法院《关于人民法院审理离婚案件处理子女抚养问题的若干具体意见》(以下简称《子女抚养意见》)中对离婚后子女抚养问题作了具体规定。根据这些有关规定,父母离婚时,子女的抚养归属问题区分以下情况分别处理:
 
Paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 36 of the Marriage Law stipulate: "After divorce, parents still have the right and obligation to support and educate their children. After divorce, breast-feeding children should be raised by breast-feeding mothers. The people's court shall decide on the rights and interests of the children and the specific circumstances of the two parties if the two parties can not reach an agreement due to disputes over the upbringing of the children after breastfeeding. On November 13, 1993, the Supreme People's Court made specific provisions on the issue of child-rearing after divorce in its "Several specific opinions on the handling of child-rearing issues in divorce cases by the people's court" (hereinafter referred to as "child-rearing opinions"). According to these relevant provisions, when parents divorce, the issue of the child's upbringing attribution is dealt with separately in the following situations:
 
 
 
1、哺乳期内的子女
 
1. Children during lactation
 
 
 
虽然在实际生活中婴儿哺乳期因人而异,由于《子女抚养意见》规定“两周岁以下的子女一般随母方生活”,司法实践中通常将“哺乳期内的子女”理解为两周岁以下的婴幼儿。父母离婚时,哺乳期内的子女一般随母方生活,但是母方有下列情形之一的,可以随父方生活:
 
Although in real life, infant breastfeeding period varies from person to person, because "children under two years of age generally live with their mother" is stipulated in the "Child Raising Opinion", in judicial practice, "children during breastfeeding period" is usually understood as infants under two years of age. When parents divorce, their children during lactation generally live with their parents. However, if the mother has one of the following circumstances, she may live with her father:
 
 
 
母方患有久治不愈的传染性疾病或其他严重疾病,子女不宜与其共同生活。
 
The mother suffers from chronic infectious diseases or other serious diseases, and children should not live with her.
 
 
 
母方有抚养条件不尽抚养义务,而父方要求子女随其生活的。
 
The mother has the duty of not bringing up the child under the condition of bringing up the child, while the father requires the child to live with him.
 
 
 
因其他原因,子女确无法随母方生活的。如母亲的生活环境明显对子女抚养不利;母亲工作性质特殊,不便于抚养子女;或者母亲违法犯罪,不利于抚养子女等。
 
For other reasons, children can't live with their mothers. For example, the mother's living environment is obviously unfavorable to the child-rearing; the mother's special nature of work is not conducive to the child-rearing; or the mother's crime is not conducive to the child-rearing and so on.
 
 
 
父母双方协议两周岁以下的子女随父方生活,并对子女健康成长无不利影响的。
 
Parents agree that children under two years old live with their parents and have no adverse effect on their healthy growth.
 
 
 
2、哺乳期后的子女
 
2. Children after lactation
 
 
 
即两周岁以上的未成年子女。对这个年龄段的未成年子女的抚养归属问题,如果父母双方协商无效,则由人民法院综合子女的权益、双方的抚养能力、抚养条件等各方面因素作出判决。实践中应当注意以下方面:
 
That is, minor children over two years of age. If the negotiation between parents is invalid, the people's court will make a judgment on the ownership of the minor children of this age by integrating the rights and interests of the children, the ability of the two sides to raise and the conditions for raising. In practice, attention should be paid to the following aspects:
 
 
 
(1)绝对优先直接抚养条件
 
(1) Absolute priority for direct maintenance
 
 
 
父母双方均要求子女随其生活的,父母一方有下列情形之一的,可优先考虑:已做绝育手术或因其他原因丧失生育能力的;子女随其生活时间较长,改变生活环境对子女健康成长明显不利的;无其他子女,而另一方有其他子女的;子女随其生活,对子女成长有利,而另一方患有久治不愈的传染性疾病或其他严重疾病,或者有其他不利于子女身心健康的情形,不宜与子女共同生活的。
 
If both parents require their children to live with them, one of the parents may give priority to the following situations: sterilization or the loss of fertility for other reasons; the change of living environment is obviously unfavorable to the healthy growth of their children with their longer life time; the absence of other children, while the other has other children; the growth of their children will benefit from their life, while the other will benefit from their children's growth. If one party suffers from an infectious disease or other serious illness that has not been cured for a long time, or has other conditions that are not conducive to the physical and mental health of his children, it is not appropriate to live with them.
 
 
 
(2)相对优先直接抚养条件
 
(2) Relative Priority of Direct Maintenance Conditions
 
 
 
《子女抚养意见》第4条规定,父方与母方抚养子女的条件基本相同,双方均要求子女与其共同生活,但子女单独随祖父母或外祖父母共同生活多年,且祖父母或外祖父母要求并且有能力帮助子女照顾孙子女或外孙子女的,可作为子女随父或母生活的优先条件予以考虑。
 
Article 4 of the Suggestions on the Maintenance of Children stipulates that the conditions for the father and mother to raise children are basically the same, and both sides require the children to live with them, but if the children live alone with their grandparents or grandparents for many years, and if the grandparents request and have the ability to help their children take care of their grandchildren or grandchildren, they may be considered as the priority conditions for their children to live with their parents or grandparents. Worry.
 
 
 
(3)考虑子女意见。由于10周岁以上的未成年人通常有了一定的辨别和判断能力,能够表达自己的意愿,因此,《子女抚养意见》第5条规定,父母双方对10周岁以上的未成年子女随父或随母生活发生争执的,应考虑该子女的意见。
 
(3) Consider children's opinions. Since minors over the age of 10 usually have a certain ability of discrimination and judgment to express their wishes, Article 5 of the "Child Raising Opinions" stipulates that parents should take into account the views of minor children over the age of 10 when they have disputes with their father or mother.
 
 
 
(4)协议轮流直接抚养子女。未成年人除了归父母一方直接抚养外,也可以考虑由父母双方轮流抚养。《子女抚养意见》第6条规定,在有利于保护子女利益的前提下,父母双方协议轮流抚养子女的,可以准许。
 
(4) The agreement takes turns to raise children directly. In addition to being brought up directly by one of the parents, minors can also be considered to be raised alternately by both parents. Article 6 of the Suggestions on the Maintenance of Children stipulates that, on the premise that it is conducive to protecting the interests of children, parents may agree to take turns in raising children.
 
 
 
如果在离婚时夫妻双方都拒绝直接抚养子女或者争抢直接抚养子女,根据《子女抚养意见》第20条的规定,在离婚诉讼期间,可以先行裁定暂由一方直接抚养,以保障离婚诉讼的顺利进行。
 
If both husband and wife refuse to support their children directly or compete for the direct support of their children at the time of divorce, according to the provisions of Article 20 of the Child Support Opinion, during the divorce proceedings, one party may decide to support them temporarily, so as to ensure the smooth progress of the divorce proceedings.
 
 
 
二、争取孩子抚养权时如何取证
 
2. How to collect evidence when striving for the child's custody right
 
 
 
首先:双方基本条件的取证
 
First of all: the basic conditions of both sides to obtain evidence
 
 
 
离婚案件中,白领及以上人士居多。因此,夫妻双方的基本条件,如工资、文化学历等差距不大,但这并不表示就没有差距,比如,一方的思想品质,就在争取孩子抚养权方面尤为重要,因为直接抚养方的思想品质,会直接影响下一代的健康成长。因此,取得这一方面的证据,是比较重要的。
 
In divorce cases, white-collar workers and above are the majority. Therefore, the basic conditions of husband and wife, such as salary, education and so on, are not very different, but this does not mean that there is no gap. For example, the ideological quality of one party is particularly important in fighting for the right of child support, because the ideological quality of the direct supporter will directly affect the healthy growth of the next generation. Therefore, it is important to obtain evidence in this respect.
 
 
 
其次:双方父母基本条件的取证
 
Secondly: Evidence of the basic conditions of both parents
 
 
 
现代生活节奏较快,很多时候,孩子往往不是夫妻任何一方带,特别对于学龄前儿童,往往是一方的父母带。因此,孩子以往的生活环境,以及长期带孩子的父母的意见及身体情况,往往也是影响孩子抚养权的一个重要方面。
 
The pace of modern life is faster. In many cases, children are not always taken by either spouse, especially for preschool children, they are often taken by parents of one spouse. Therefore, the children's past living environment, as well as the opinions and physical conditions of long-term parents with children, are often an important aspect of affecting the child's custody rights.
 
 
 
再者:孩子生活环境方面的取证
 
Again: Evidence from children's living environment
 
 
 
离婚案件中孩子抚养问题的处理原则,是不影响孩子的健康成长。如果双方离婚,但有一方距离学校较近,或生活小区成熟,对孩子入学、生活最为有利,当然得到孩子抚养权的可能性就会更大。因此,这方面的取证工作也是必须的。
 
In divorce cases, the principle of child rearing is not to affect the healthy growth of children. If the two parties divorce, but one side is close to the school, or the living area is mature, it is most beneficial for the children to enter school and live, of course, the possibility of obtaining the child's custody rights will be greater. Therefore, forensic work in this area is also necessary.
 
 
 
最后,孩子的意见相当重要
 
Finally, children's opinions are important.

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