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黄羽肉鸡屠宰后怎样保持表皮的完整与风味物质的保存?

发布于:2018-11-08 14:22

由于黄羽肉鸡品种多、品种间的差异大,对屠宰加工工艺及加工技术要求不同,因此,科学的屠宰加工技术以及宰后的贮藏保鲜技术是冰鲜鸡品质的关键。
 
Because there are many varieties of yellow feather broilers and there are great differences among breeds, there are different requirements for slaughter processing technology and processing technology. Therefore, scientific slaughter processing technology and post-slaughter storage and fresh-keeping technology are the key to the quality of frozen chicken.
 
 
 
畜牧业,养禽业,黄羽肉鸡
 
Animal husbandry, poultry industry, Huang Yu broiler
 
 
 
2017年11月14日,在广东佛山,由南方农村报社、新牧网、新禽况主办,广东省家禽产业技术体系、国鸡文化推广联盟承办的“2017国鸡产业高峰论坛”上,华南农业大学食品学院副教授林捷为养殖户讲解了屠宰工艺对肉鸡品质的影响。
 
On November 14, 2017, Linjie, an associate professor of Food College of South China Agricultural University, explained the effect of slaughtering technology on the quality of broiler chickens for farmers at the "2017 National Chicken Industry Summit Forum" sponsored by Southern Rural Newspaper, New Animal Husbandry Network and New Poultry Situation and sponsored by Guangdong Poultry Industry Technology System and National Chicken Culture Promotion Alliance. Influence.
 
 
 
黄羽肉鸡摇身一变变成冰鲜鸡,可不仅仅是脱个毛这么简单。如何使黄羽肉鸡屠宰后保持表皮的完整与风味物质的保存,也是多数企业迫切需要解决的问题。
 
Huang Yu's chicken turned into chilled chicken. It's not just that it's so simple. How to maintain the integrity of the skin and preservation of flavor substances after slaughter of yellow-feathered broilers is also an urgent problem for most enterprises.
 
 
 
相对传统的活鸡现宰现售的热鲜鸡而言,冰鲜鸡是指按照严格的家禽屠宰规范,经电晕、宰杀放血、烫毛、脱毛、开膛去内脏、清洗降温等一系列工艺流程生产所得的安全卫生的产品,冰鲜鸡具有良好的食用品质及更高的安全性。
 
Compared with traditional live chickens, frozen chickens are safe and hygienic products produced by a series of technological processes, such as corona, slaughter and bleeding, scalding, hair removal, open-hearted viscera removal, cleaning and cooling, according to strict poultry slaughtering standards. Frozen chickens have good edible quality and higher safety. Sex.
 
 
 
宰前控制应激
 
Stress control before slaughter
 
 
 
现代的黄羽肉鸡养殖技术,使肉鸡生活在一个舒适安逸的环境,屠宰前的抓鸡入笼、运输途中的风吹日晒雨淋、长途运输等环境额改变,以及凉水冲淋、上链倒挂等宰前处理均会造成鸡的不适应,导致肉鸡体内的各种激素分泌紊乱(应激反应),最终影响冰鲜鸡的品质。
 
Modern Yellow-feather Broiler breeding technology makes broilers live in a comfortable and comfortable environment. The changes of environment amount such as catching chickens into cages before slaughtering, winding, sunshine and rain during transportation, long-distance transportation, cold water showering, upside-down hanging of the chain and other pre-slaughter treatments will cause chickens'maladjustment and lead to the secretion of various hormones in the body of broilers. Disturbance (stress response) ultimately affects the quality of chilled chicken.
 
 
 
应激反应导致肉鸡血浆中皮质酮激素增加,促使肉鸡体内能量代谢紊乱,引起肌肉内糖原酵解生成大量乳酸并沉积在肌肉中,从而使屠宰后的冰鲜鸡肉质中残存大量的乳酸,肉鸡的品质大大降低。通过宰前休息和适当的淋水降温,让肉鸡恢复身体状况;上链倒挂避光让鸡保持安静,是降低应急有效的手段。因此,屠宰前肉鸡的身体健康状况是确保冰鲜鸡品质的基础。
 
Stress reaction leads to the increase of corticosteroid hormone in plasma of broilers, which promotes the disorder of energy metabolism in broilers, causes glycogen hydrolysis in muscle to produce a large amount of lactic acid and deposit in muscle, thus leaving a large amount of lactic acid in the meat quality of slaughtered frozen chickens, and greatly reduces the quality of broilers. By resting before slaughter and cooling with proper water, the broilers can recover their health; hanging upside down from the light to keep the chickens quiet is an effective means to reduce emergency response. Therefore, the health condition of the chicken before slaughtering is the foundation of ensuring the quality of chilled chicken.
 
 
 
宰中控制肉质
 
Control of meat in slaughter
 
 
 
屠宰过程中的每一个工艺环节是确保冰鲜鸡品质关键。
 
Every process in slaughtering process is the key to ensure the quality of chilled chicken.
 
 
 
1、电晕过程中不合理的电压的高低与频率、电流强度,会导致肉鸡体内激素的升高、肌肉及皮肤出血斑点的出现;
 
1. The unreasonable voltage, frequency and current intensity during corona can lead to the increase of hormones in Broilers and the appearance of bleeding spots in muscles and skin.
 
 
 
2、适宜的烫毛水温、合理的脱毛机是保证冰鲜鸡皮肤完整、断羽、断翅等残次率低的前提条件;
 
2. Appropriate scalding water temperature and reasonable depilator are the prerequisites to ensure the integrity of skin, broken feathers, broken wings and other low residual rate of frozen chickens.
 
 
 
3、不规范的开膛去内脏操作,会导致肠内容物对肉鸡胴体的严重污染;
 
3, irregular cannu operation can lead to serious contamination of meat contents on meat carcasses.
 
 
 
4、去内脏后胴体的清水冲洗,可有效去除提请内的血水及部分微生物;
 
4. Rinsing the carcass after removing viscera can effectively remove blood and some microorganisms.
 
 
 
5、为确保肉鸡的品质,宰后迅速降温是必不可少的。
 
5, in order to ensure the quality of broilers, rapid cooling after slaughter is essential.
 
 
 
肉鸡的宰后降温分为水冷式和风冷式两种,水冷式是采用冰水浸泡胴体进行降温,其优点是降温快且可适当减菌,缺点是部分风味物质流失;风冷式则采用低温空气对胴体进行降温,其优点是风味物质保存好,缺点是降温时间长、水分流失大、皮肤干燥、外观不美观。准确地把控黄羽肉鸡屠宰过程中的每一个工艺要点,选择合适的加工设备,是生产安全、高品质冰鲜鸡的关键。
 
The postmortem cooling of broilers can be divided into two types: water-cooled and air-cooled. The water-cooled method uses ice-water to immerse the carcass for cooling. Its advantages are quick cooling and proper bacterial reduction, while the disadvantages are partial loss of flavor substances. The air-cooled method uses low temperature air to cool the carcass, which has the advantages of good preservation of flavor substances and long cooling time. The water loss is large, the skin is dry and the appearance is not beautiful. It is the key to produce safe and high-quality frozen chicken to accurately control each key point of slaughter process and select appropriate processing equipment.
 
 
 
宰后控制细菌
 
Control bacteria after slaughter
 
 
 
冰鲜家禽指对严格执行检疫制度屠宰后的家禽胴体迅速进行冷却处理,使家禽胴体中心温度降为 0℃~4℃,然后进行分割(或不分割)、修整、包装,并在后续的贮存、流通和零售过程中始终保持在 0℃~4℃范围内的家禽产品。按照国家标准的规定,肉鸡屠宰后需迅速降温至4℃以下,且在贮存、流通和销售过程维持在4℃以下。
 
Frozen poultry refers to poultry carcasses which are rapidly cooled after slaughtering under strict quarantine system, so that the temperature of poultry carcass center is reduced to 0 ~4 C, and then divided (or not divided), trimmed and packaged, and kept in the range of 0 ~4 C during subsequent storage, circulation and retail. According to the national standards, broiler chickens need to be cooled down to below 4 C rapidly after slaughter, and kept below 4 C during storage, circulation and sale.
 
 
 
屠宰后的肉鸡——冰鲜鸡,由于其体表还残存有少量的微生物,且肌肉中的生物化学反应还没有停止,在适宜的温度、湿度和氧气的条件下,微生物会大量生长繁殖、生物化学反应加速,轻微时可导致鸡皮变得灰白、发粘,内腔色泽发暗变灰,外观及食用品质下降;严重时会导致肉质腐败,失去食用价值。
 
The slaughtered broiler, the frozen chicken, has a small amount of microorganisms on its body surface, and the biochemical reaction in its muscle has not stopped. Under the suitable temperature, humidity and oxygen conditions, microorganisms will grow and multiply in large quantities, and the biochemical reaction will accelerate, slightly leading to the chicken skin becoming gray, sticky, and inside. Cavity color darkened and grey, appearance and edible quality decreased; serious meat will lead to corruption, loss of edible value.
 
 
 
冰温保鲜技术是一种采用临近肉质结冰的温度对肉进行保鲜的一种新技术。冰温保鲜技术能够有效抑制冰鲜鸡表面的微生物使其处于休眠状态,同时使肉的生物化学反应处于停滞状态,从而能够长时间确保冰鲜鸡处于优质、安全状态。
 
Ice temperature preservation technology is a new technology which uses meat near freezing temperature to keep fresh meat. Ice-temperature preservation technology can effectively inhibit the microorganisms on the surface of frozen chicken and make it dormant, while the biochemical reaction of meat stays at a standstill state, so as to ensure that the frozen chicken is in a high-quality and safe state for a long time.
 
 
 
因此,科学合理的屠宰技术及保藏技术是确保冰鲜鸡优质安全的关键。
 
Therefore, scientific and reasonable slaughter technology and preservation technology is the key to ensure the quality and safety of chilled chicken.

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