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农场动物福利:符合绿色农业的大潮流 促进畜牧业良性发展

发布于:2018-11-08 14:20

随着集约化养殖模式得到普遍应用,饲养规模和密度不断增加,大幅度提高畜禽生产效率的同时,也产生了大量的动物福利问题,畜禽生存条件恶劣,免疫力低下,危害人类与动物健康,威胁公共卫生安全。近年来,世界动物卫生组织(OIE)致力于改善全球农场动物福利,并将动物福利纳入《陆生动物卫生法典》,强调兽医是提高农场动物福利的关键,兽医工作的最终目标是为了减少动物疾病、促进动物福利、维护人类健康。
 
With the widespread application of intensive farming mode, the increasing scale and density of livestock and poultry, the production efficiency of livestock and poultry has been greatly improved. At the same time, a large number of animal welfare problems have arisen. Livestock and poultry have poor living conditions, low immunity, endangering human and animal health, and threatening public health and safety. In recent years, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has devoted itself to improving animal welfare on farms worldwide and has incorporated animal welfare into the Land Animal Health Code, emphasizing that veterinary medicine is the key to improving animal welfare on farms. The ultimate goal of veterinary work is to reduce animal diseases, promote animal welfare and maintain human health.
 
 
 
畜牧业,规模化养殖,农场动物福利
 
Animal husbandry, scale farming, farm animal welfare
 
 
 
近日,我国首部农场动物福利行业标准《动物福利评价通则》出台,引起了广泛讨论。
 
Recently, China's first farm animal welfare industry standard, General Principles for the Evaluation of Animal Welfare, has aroused wide discussion.
 
 
 
什么是动物福利
 
What is animal welfare?
 
 
 
我国肉类人均占有量已达到世界平均水平,而蛋类则已达到发达国家平均水平。我国畜牧业正由数量型向质量型转变,从畜牧业大国向畜牧业强国转变,改善农场动物福利可以提高畜产品品质,开展相应的工作将对我国畜牧业发展产生深远的影响。
 
China's per capita meat share has reached the world average, while egg has reached the average level of developed countries. China's animal husbandry is changing from quantity to quality, from big animal husbandry country to powerful animal husbandry country. Improving the welfare of farm animals can improve the quality of animal products, and carrying out corresponding work will have a far-reaching impact on the development of animal husbandry in China.
 
 
 
世界动物卫生组织(WorldOrgani?zationforAnimalHealth,OIE)将动物福利定义为动物的一种生存状态,良好的动物福利状态包括健康,舒适,安全的生存环境,充足的营养,免受疼痛、恐惧和压力,表达动物的天性,良好兽医诊治和疾病预防、合理人道的屠宰方法。
 
The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) defines animal welfare as a living condition of animals. Good animal welfare includes a healthy, comfortable and safe living environment, adequate nutrition, freedom from pain, fear and stress, expression of animal nature, good veterinary diagnosis and treatment, and disease preparedness. Prevention and reasonable humane slaughtering methods.
 
 
 
英国农场动物福利委员会(FarmAnimalWelfareCouncil)提出动物福利五项指导原则,分别为:免受饥渴;免受不适;免受疼痛、伤害和疾病;免受恐惧和痛苦;表达正常行为。
 
The FarmAnimal Welfare Council has put forward five guiding principles for animal welfare: freedom from hunger and thirst; freedom from discomfort; freedom from pain, injury and disease; freedom from fear and pain; and expression of normal behavior.
 
 
 
动物实验替代方法“3R”原则为科研中动物的使用提供有用的指导,分别是减少实验动物数(Reduction)、改进动物实验方法(Refinement)、替代实验动物(Replacement)。
 
The principle of "3R" provides useful guidance for the use of animals in scientific research, namely, reducing the number of experimental animals, improving the method of animal experiment (Refinement), and replacing experimental animals.
 
 
 
动物福利有利于提高畜产品品质
 
Animal welfare is beneficial to improving the quality of livestock products.
 
 
 
集约化养殖模式片面追求经济利益,降低饲养成本,把畜禽当做“生产机器”,生产规模和饲养密度越来越大,在有限的土地上饲养大量的动物,出现了蛋鸡笼养、母猪高床饲养等一系列高密度的饲养模式,畜禽没有活动空间,连侧身、站立都很困难,畜禽的机体长期受到限制使机体的免疫力大幅度下降;畜禽排除的粪、尿、气体使畜舍环境不断恶化,使畜禽极易得病,严重影响畜禽的生产力和健康水平。
 
Intensive farming model unilaterally pursues economic benefits, reduces feeding costs, and regards livestock and poultry as "production machines". The production scale and feeding density are increasing. A large number of animals are raised on limited land. A series of high-density feeding models, such as egg cage raising and sow bed raising, have emerged. There is no room for livestock and poultry to move. It is very difficult to stand and side, the body of livestock and poultry is restricted for a long time, and the immunity of the body is greatly reduced. The excrement, urine and gas excluded by livestock and poultry make the environment of livestock and poultry deteriorating continuously, making them very susceptible to disease, seriously affecting the productivity and health level of livestock and poultry.
 
 
 
有利于提高动物健康和防疫水平
 
Conducive to improving animal health and epidemic prevention level
 
 
 
农场动物福利就是确保畜禽在饲养、运输和屠宰过程中的生存质量,善待活的动物,减少屠宰的痛苦。如果能够按照不同物种的生理和行为习惯改造生存环境,加强饲养管理,必然会减少他们的应激反应,提高畜禽的免疫力、体质和健康水平,减少各种传染性疾病的发生,减轻养殖企业和动物检疫部门的卫生防疫压力,这与“防重于治”的疫病防治理念是完全一致的。
 
Farm animal welfare is to ensure the quality of life of livestock and poultry in the process of raising, transportation and slaughtering, treat living animals kindly and reduce slaughter pain. If we can transform the living environment according to the physiological and behavioral habits of different species and strengthen the feeding management, we will inevitably reduce their stress response, improve the immunity, physique and health level of livestock and poultry, reduce the occurrence of various infectious diseases, and reduce the health and epidemic prevention pressure of breeding enterprises and animal quarantine departments. The idea of preventing and curing epidemic diseases is completely consistent.
 
 
 
有利于动物福利标准的建立适合国内畜牧业发展需求
 
Conducive to the establishment of animal welfare standards, suitable for domestic animal husbandry development needs
 
 
 
目前,国际上政府、企业或行业组织开展动物福利工作是大势所趋,无论出于伦理道德、科学研究还是经济、政治原因,我国有必要在动物福利领域深入研究,尤其是动物福利标准的制定严重滞后,影响畜产品国际贸易和畜产品质量。提出科学的、可操作的、符合我国国情的动物福利标准,才能真正做到为国民提供优质的动物源食品,才能使动物福利科学的研究和应用更加符合我国的畜牧业生产。
 
At present, it is a general trend for international governments, enterprises or trade organizations to carry out animal welfare work. Whether for ethical, scientific or economic and political reasons, it is necessary for China to conduct in-depth research in the field of animal welfare, especially the formulation of animal welfare standards is seriously lagging behind, affecting international trade in animal products and livestock products. Quality of the product. Only by putting forward scientific, operable animal welfare standards that conform to our national conditions can we truly provide high-quality animal-derived food for the people, and make the research and application of animal welfare science more in line with our country's animal husbandry production.
 
 
 
有利于提高畜产品品质
 
Improving the quality of livestock products
 
 
 
将农场动物福利的研究成果应用于实践,可以改善畜禽的饲养环境,提高其福利水平,使动物的生理和行为需要得到满足。保证动物在一个良好的饲养环境下生产和繁殖,有效减少应激反应和疾病,同时减少给消费者健康带来严重危害的农药、饲料添加剂、兽药的使用量,从而提高畜产品品质。
 
Applying the research results of farm animal welfare to practice can improve the feeding environment of livestock and poultry, improve their welfare level, and meet the physiological and behavioral needs of animals. Ensure animal production and reproduction in a good feeding environment, effectively reduce stress response and disease, and reduce the use of pesticides, feed additives, veterinary drugs that seriously harm consumers'health, thereby improving the quality of animal products.
 
 
 
有利于促进绿色、可持续养殖模式发展
 
Conducive to promoting the development of green and sustainable aquaculture mode
 
 
 
随着现代化畜牧业的飞速发展,规模化养殖越来越多,畜禽产生的大量的粪、尿等排泄物,其中的重金属物质及抗生素等兽药随即排入养殖场周围的土地、河流和大气中,已成为影响生态环境和人们生活质量的重要污染源。农场动物福利的研究应符合绿色农业的大潮流,关注畜禽、人、环境的和谐统一,促进畜牧业良性发展,走可持续发展道路。
 
With the rapid development of modern animal husbandry, more and more large-scale farming, livestock and poultry produced a large number of excreta, such as feces, urine, heavy metals and antibiotics, which were then discharged into the land, rivers and atmosphere around the farm, has become an important source of pollution affecting the ecological environment and people's quality of life. The research on farm animal welfare should conform to the trend of green agriculture, pay attention to the harmony and unity of livestock, human and environment, promote the healthy development of animal husbandry and take the road of sustainable development.
 
 
 
关于动物福利的几点认识
 
Some understandings about animal welfare
 
 
 
动物福利不是反对利用动物,动物福利就是保障动物健康,动物福利并不是反对利用动物,而是反对残忍、非人道的虐待动物。动物福利和人的福利是不同的,动物并不是要求额外好处,而是最基本的生存需求。动物福利的目的就是要人类合理利用动物的同时兼顾他们最基本的需求,而非“禁食肉”“禁穿皮毛制品”“禁养动物”等激进思想。
 
Animal welfare is not against the use of animals, animal welfare is to protect animal health, animal welfare is not against the use of animals, but against cruel, inhuman cruelty to animals. Animal welfare is different from human welfare. Animals do not require additional benefits, but the most basic survival needs. The purpose of animal welfare is to make rational use of animals while taking into account their basic needs, rather than radical ideas such as "fasting meat", "forbidding fur products" and "forbidding animals".

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