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特高压工程:破解中国能源输送瓶颈的大国重器

发布于:2018-10-29 11:20

近日,国家能源局下发《关于加快推进一批输变电重点工程规划建设工作的通知》,将在今明两年核准9个重点输变电线路工程,其中7个为特高压工程,总输电能力5700万千瓦。这条很快淹没在众多经济事件中的信息,跟另几条新闻却能互为关联。
 
Recently, the State Energy Administration issued the Notice on Accelerating the Planning and Construction of a Batch of Key Transmission and Distribution Projects, which will approve nine key transmission and transformation line projects in this year and next, including seven ultra-high voltage projects with a total transmission capacity of 57 million kilowatts. The information that quickly drowned in many economic events can be interrelated with several other news items.
 
 
 
9月中旬,青海省政府召开新闻发布会宣布,青海省积极培育绿色发展“新动能”,致力于走循环低碳发展道路,世界级新能源基地逐步形成。
 
In mid-September, the Qinghai Provincial Government held a press conference to announce that Qinghai Province is actively cultivating "new kinetic energy" for green development and is committed to taking the road of cyclic low-carbon development. A world-class new energy base has gradually formed.
 
 
 
今夏,江苏最高用电负荷连破1亿千瓦。媒体报道形容,这相当于14亿中国人每人同时点亮一盏电灯。
 
This summer, the highest electricity load in Jiangsu broke even 100 million kilowatts. Media reports described this as equivalent to 1 billion 400 million Chinese lighting lights at the same time.
 
 
 
青海和江苏,恰好对应着新核准工程的送端和受端。这也契合我国能源资源逆向分布的现实:资源富集在西部、北部,负荷中心中东部却能源匮乏。
 
Qinghai and Jiangsu exactly correspond to the sending ends and receiving ends of the newly approved projects. This is also in accordance with China's energy resources distribution in reverse reality: the rich resources in the west, north, east central load center but lack of energy.
 
 
 
 
 
一边要把资源优势变成经济优势,一边迫切渴望能源支持。需求,成为这些省份亟待建设特高压的原因。除了经济因素,特高压建设还涵盖生态保护、社会综合效益等诸多内容。
 
On the other hand, we should turn resources into economic advantages, and we are eager for energy support. Demand has become the reason why these provinces need to build UHV. In addition to economic factors, UHV construction also covers many aspects such as ecological protection, social comprehensive benefits and so on.
 
 
 
经济社会发展需要特高压
 
Economic and social development needs extra high pressure.
 
 
 
纵观改革开放40年的发展史,电力需求与经济始终保持同步。2017年,我国国内生产总值按不变价计算比1978年增长33.5倍,年均增长9.5%,远高于同期世界经济2.9%左右的年均增速。电力数据显示,2017年,全社会用电量达到6.37万亿千瓦时,比1978年增长了25.5倍,年均增速达到8.8%。
 
Throughout the 40 years of reform and opening up, electricity demand has kept pace with the economy. In 2017, China's GDP growth of 33.5 times higher than in 1978 at constant prices, the average annual growth of 9.5%, far higher than the average annual growth rate of about 2.9% over the same period of world economy. The electric power data show that in 2017 years, the total electricity consumption reached 6 trillion and 370 billion kwh, an increase of 25.5 times more than 1978 years, the average annual growth rate reached 8.8%.
 
 
 
能源是现代化的基础和动力,当经济社会发展,用电量随之上升,电网配置范围不断扩大,电压等级也相应提高。反之,如果能源输送出现“瓶颈”,事关行业发展,甚至影响经济社会发展和民生保障。
 
Energy is the basis of modern and dynamic, when the economic and social development, electricity consumption increased, expanding the scope of the allocation of power grid, voltage level also increased. On the contrary, if the energy transmission "bottleneck", is related to the development of the industry, and even affect the social economic development and people's livelihood security.
 
 
 
1978年,我国电网最高电压等级是330千伏,到上世纪80年代出现了500千伏交直流工程。500千伏电网有力支撑了我国多年的发展。但随着经济社会快速发展,远距离大容量输送能力不足、东部土地资源紧缺和环保容量的制约,无法满足新的需求。
 
In 1978, the highest voltage of power grid in China is 330 kV to 80 in the last century, the emergence of 500 kV DC project. The 500 thousand volt power grid has strongly supported the development of our country for many years. But with the rapid development of economy and society, restricting the long distance and large capacity transport capacity shortage, shortage of land resources in the eastern and environmental capacity, can not meet the new requirements.
 
 
 
2004年,华东三省一市召开了“十一五”规划讨论会。当时华东500千伏电压网架接近发展极限,电网走廊资源紧缺、短路电流超标严重,若干500千伏变电站被迫分列分段运行,直接影响电网安全。我国能源资源和需求的地域分布特点,以及新的发展需求,使得发展安全性更高、经济性更优、配置能力更强的电压等级成为必然。
 
In 2004, a "11th Five-Year" planning seminar was held in a city in three provinces of East China. The East China 500 kV voltage grid is close to the limit, the corridor grid resources shortage, short circuit current exceed the standard seriously, a number of 500 kV substation are forced to directly affect the segmentation operation, network security. The geographical distribution of the characteristics of China's energy resources and demand, as well as the new development needs, the development of safety of higher voltage and economy better, stronger configuration has become inevitable.
 
 
 
与500千伏相比,特高压在输送距离和能力上有显著优势。在输电走廊日益紧张的前提下,据测算,1000千伏特高压交流工程走廊宽度虽比500千伏方案宽20米,输送容量却达到4至5倍,综合计算,相当于节省占地二分之一至三分之二。国家能源局原局长张国宝曾说:“特高压输电技术的特点是输送距离远、容量大、损耗低、效率高。这是超高压等其他电压等级所做不到的。”
 
Compared with 500 thousand volts, UHV has significant advantages in conveying distance and capability. In the premise of transmission corridor increasingly tense, according to estimates, 1 million volts high voltage AC 500 thousand volts is less than the width of the corridor project scheme is 20 meters wide, transmission capacity has reached 4 to 5 times, comprehensive calculation, equivalent to savings of three covers an area of two to two. Former director of the National Energy Bureau Zhang Guobao said: "the characteristics of UHV transmission technology is the transportation distance, large capacity, low loss, high efficiency. This is not achieved by extra high voltage and other voltage levels.
 
 
 
特高压有力促进清洁能源消纳
 
UHV strongly promotes clean energy consumption
 
 
 
特高压工程落点连接成线路,线路组成电网,显示了各层面发挥的不同作用。
 
UHV line placement connected circuit, power grid, display different functions of various levels of play.
 
 
 
2006年,第一条特高压交流试验示范工程开工。至今,中国已建成21个特高压工程。特高压联通的省份,发展活力得以有效释放。
 
In 2006, the first UHV demonstration project started. So far, China has built 21 UHV projects. UHV Unicom's provinces, the development of vitality can be effectively released.
 
 
 
内蒙古自治区煤炭累计勘察估算总量、风能资源均居全国首位。据测算,已竣工的“三交三直”特高压工程可新增内蒙古电力外送能力约4400万千瓦。内蒙古自治区人大常委会副主任王波说:“特高压年输电2000亿千瓦时,就地转化标准煤约6000万吨,直接带动各类电源投资1200亿元以上,在有力推动能源电力工业蓬勃发展的同时,也对拉动GDP起到极大的促进作用。”
 
The total amount of coal exploration and estimation and wind energy resources in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region rank the first in the country. According to estimates, has completed the "three pay three straight UHV new Inner Mongolia power delivery capacity of about 44 million kilowatts. The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region people's Congress deputy director Wang Bo said: "the years of UHV power transmission 200 billion kwh, about 60 million tons of standard coal in situ conversion, directly led to all kinds of power investment of more than 120 billion yuan, in a strong impetus to the rapid development of the energy and power industry, but also to promote role in stimulating GDP."
 
 
 
《通知》提到,一条直流工程将送江苏。江苏是唯一全部省辖市都跻身2017年中国城市GDP百强排名的省份。在今夏用电负荷连续破亿时,江苏电网最高区外来电超过2100万千瓦。特高压工程将进一步保障东中部电力供应,满足电力供需的基本平衡需要。
 
According to the notice, a DC project will be sent to Jiangsu. Jiangsu is the only province in which all provincial cities rank among the top 100 GDP cities in China in 2017. In this summer, when the electricity load continues to break 100 million, the external power of the highest power grid in Jiangsu will exceed 21 million kilowatts. The UHV project will further protect the eastern and central electric power supply to meet the basic balance needs of power supply and demand.
 
 
 
视野从一省放大到全线,《通知》提及的7个特高压工程,起点多位于“三弃”突出的地区,如青海、张家口清洁能源基地和白鹤滩水电基地等。2017年年底,我国水电、风电、太阳能发电装机分别达到3.4亿、1.6亿和1.3亿千瓦,均为全球最大规模。清洁能源的快速发展,也带来了巨大的消纳压力。
 
View from a province to enlarge the line, the "notice" mentioned in the 7 UHV project, located in the starting point "three abandoned" salient regions, such as Qinghai, Zhangjiakou clean energy base and Baihetan Hydropower Base etc.. At the end of 2017, hydropower, wind power, solar power generation installed in China reached 340 million, 160 million and 130 million kilowatts, is the world's largest. The rapid development of clean energy has also brought enormous pressure to absorb.

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